With age, the quality and number of spermatozoa slowly declines, although this decline in sex cells is not as pronounced as in women.

The risk of spontaneous abortion and chromosomal changes in the child increases slightly with the increased age of the father.

Reduced sperm count usually result in infertility.

1% of men of reproductive age have a complete lack of spermatozoa (Azoospermia). Impaired sperm function can be a consequence of hormonal and genetic disorders, enlarged veins (varicocele), undescended testicles and operations on the genital organs, as well as radiation and cytostatic treatment due to malignant conditions.

In these men, spermatozoa can be obtained from the epididymis or from the testicle itself.

If the cause is a “blockage” in the ducts, sperm can be obtained by aspiration of the epididymis, a method called percutaneous epididymal aspiration (PESA).

If spermatozoa are not found in the epididymis, a testicular biopsy is performed, which is a method called “testicular sperm extraction” (TESE).

When it is diagnosed that the cause of azoospermia is in the testicle itself (so-called non-obstructive azoospermia), micro TESE is performed. This method gives the best chance of isolating spermatozoa and is performed under an operating microscope with a magnification of 6-24x.

All these interventions can be done under general or local anesthesia. If spermatozoa are found, in vitro fertilization can be done immediately, or the material can be frozen for later use. The results of in vitro fertilization are the same as when using spermatozoa from the ejaculate.


For information on the diagnosis and treatment of infertility in men, as well as for consultations with our experts, contact us on the phone numbers on weekdays from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. or write us an email.