A woman’s age is an important factor for pregnancy success. A girl in puberty has about 400,000 egg cells on both ovaries, which are located in the so-called “primordial follicles”. In each cycle, about 1,000 eggs develop, so that only one matures and ovulates, so a woman has 350-400 ovulations in her life. With age, the quality of egg cells also declines, which is especially pronounced after the age of 35.
Ovulation means the release of a mature egg cell from the ovarian follicle, which is then “caught” by the fallopian tube where it is fertilized by a spermatozoon. Ovulation is the result of the coordinated function of hormones of the central nervous system and the ovaries. When this hormone balance is disturbed, ovulation is absent.
The causes can be:
- loss of body weight and eating disorders;
- difficult physical training;
- excess body weight;
- express mental stress;
- polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
PCOS is the most common hormonal disorder in women, affecting 10% of the female population. In patients with PCOS, the ovaries produce an excess of male hormones, which prevents ovulation and leads to irregular periods. Acne and increased hairiness also occur in this group of patients. Infertility is the result of the absence of ovulation.
Impassable fallopian tubes
The function of the fallopian tube is to transport the ovulated egg cell towards the uterus as well as the spermatozoa from the direction of the uterus. Fertilization takes place in the fallopian tube from where the fertilized egg travels to the uterine cavity. Damage to the mucous membrane of the fallopian tubes and blockage of the fallopian tubes, which most often occurs after infection with chlamydia and gonococcus, leads to infertility. Adhesions and scar tissue in the abdomen after infection or endometriosis can also lead to impaired fallopian tube function.
The uterus as a factor in infertility
Myomas (benign changes on the uterus) located in the uterine cavity and possibly in the uterine wall can be the cause of infertility. About 8% of women between the ages of 33 and 40 have fibroids. 1 in 4,000 women are born without a uterus, while some women have their uterus surgically removed during their reproductive years due to malignant diseases and complications during childbirth.
Endometriosis is a condition where the lining of the uterus is located outside the uterine cavity, most often in the abdominal cavity and on the ovaries. Women with endometriosis most often have painful periods, pain during intercourse and chronic abdominal pain. Endometriosis leads to infertility by preventing ovulation, negatively affecting fertilization, creating adhesions in the stomach and disrupting the function of the fallopian tubes.
Disturbed hormone function
A high level of the prolactin hormone and inadequate thyroid gland function lead to ovulation disorders and thus infertility.
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